Level: 2


  1. Describe in writing, orally, or with pictures how the early pioneers met the following basic living needs.
    1. Housing and furnishings
    2. Clothing
    3. Food
    4. Cooking
    5. Warmth and light
    6. Tools and Handiwork
    7. Sanitation
    8. Transportation
  2. Construct a piece of useful furniture by lashing. Learn the following lashings:
    1. Square
    2. Diagonal
    3. Sheer
    4. Continuous
  3. Do one of the following:
    1. Weave a basket using natural materials.
    2. Make a pair of leather moccasins.
    3. Make a lady’s bonnet by hand sewing.
    4. Make a simple toy used by the pioneers.
  4. Know how to make flour from at least one wild plant for use in baking.
  5. Build a fire without matches. Use natural fire building materials. Keep the fire going for five minutes. You may use the following to start it:
    1. Flint and steel
    2. Friction
    3. Curved glass
    4. Compressed air
  6. Show axmanship knowledge in the following:
    1. Describe the best types of axes.
    2. Show how to sharpen an ax properly.
    3. Know and practice safety rules in the use of an ax.
    4. Know the proper way to use an ax.
    5. Properly cut in two a log at least eight-inches thick.
    6. Properly split wood that is at least eight-inches in diameter and one-foot long.
  7. Do two of the following:
    1. Make a ten-foot rope from natural material or twine.
    2. Tie ten knots useful to the pioneer and tell how they were used.
    3. Using rope and natural materials, make one device for moving heavy objects.
    4. Construct an adequate and comfortable latrine.
  8. Explain the need for proper sanitation relating to solid and human waste and the washing of body, clothes, and dishes.
  9. Assist in the construction of a ten-foot long log or rope bridge, using lashings.
  10. Know four ways to keep the wilderness beautiful.
  11. Do two of the following:
    1. Make a wax candle or other form of pioneer light source
    2. Make a batch of soap
    3. Milk a cow
    4. Churn butter
    5. Make a quill pen and write with it
    6. Make a corn husk doll
    7. Assist in making a quilt
  12. Know five home remedies from wild plants and explain their uses.
  13. Do one of the following:
    1. Assist in constructing a raft, using lashings. Take a five-mile (8.3 km) trip on a river with this raft.
    2. With an experienced wrangler, participate in a two-day, 15-mile (25 km) horseback trip, carrying all needed supplies on a pack horse you have learned to pack.
    3. With an experienced leader, participate in a two-day, 15-mile (25 km) canoe trip, carrying all needed supplies properly. A short portage should be done.
    4. With an experienced leader, participate in a two-day, 15-mile (25 km) backpack trip, carrying all needed supplies.

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